BEIJING — China’s Communist Occasion already wields outsized affect over Hong Kong’s political panorama. Its allies have lengthy managed a committee that handpicks the territory’s chief. Its loyalists dominate the Hong Kong legislature. It ousted 4 of town’s elected opposition lawmakers final yr.
Now, China plans to impose restrictions on Hong Kong’s electoral system to root out candidates the Communist Occasion deems disloyal, a transfer that might block democracy advocates within the metropolis from working for any elected workplace.
The deliberate overhaul reinforces the Communist Occasion’s resolve to quash the few remaining vestiges of political dissent after the antigovernment protests that roiled the territory in 2019. It additionally builds on a nationwide safety legislation for town that Beijing enacted final summer season, giving the authorities sweeping powers to focus on dissent.
Collectively, these efforts are reworking Hong Kong’s freewheeling, usually messy partial democracy right into a political system extra intently resembling mainland China’s authoritarian system, which calls for nearly complete obedience.
“In our nation the place socialist democracy is practiced, political dissent is allowed, however there’s a crimson line right here,” Xia Baolong, China’s director of Hong Kong and Macau affairs, stated on Monday in a strongly worded speech that outlined Beijing’s intentions. “It should not be allowed to wreck the basic system of the nation — that’s, injury the management of the Communist Occasion of China.”
The central authorities desires Hong Kong to be run by “patriots,” Mr. Xia stated, and won’t let the Hong Kong authorities rewrite the territory’s legal guidelines, as beforehand anticipated, however will achieve this itself.
Mr. Xia didn’t go into particulars, however Hong Kong’s chief, Carrie Lam, affirmed the broad strokes of the plan, saying on Tuesday that a few years of intermittent protests over Hong Kong’s political future had pressured the nationwide authorities to behave.
When Britain returned Hong Kong to Chinese language sovereignty in 1997, the territory was promised a excessive diploma of autonomy, along with the preservation of its capitalist financial system and the rule of legislation.
However within the many years since, many among the many metropolis’s 7.5 million residents have grown cautious of Beijing’s encroachment on their freedoms and unfulfilled guarantees of common suffrage. The Communist Occasion, for its half, has been alarmed by more and more open resistance to its rule within the metropolis and has blamed what it calls hostile international forces bent on undermining its sovereignty.
These tensions escalated in 2019 when lots of Hong Kong residents took to the streets in protests for months, calling partially for common suffrage. Additionally they delivered a putting rebuke of Beijing by handing pro-democracy candidates a surprising victory in native district elections that had lengthy been dominated by the institution.
The most recent deliberate overhaul seeks to stop such electoral upsets and, extra essential, would additionally give Beijing a a lot tighter grip on the 1,200-member committee that may resolve early subsequent yr who would be the metropolis’s chief government for the subsequent 5 years.
Completely different teams in Hong Kong society — bankers, legal professionals, accountants and others — will vote this yr to decide on their representatives on the committee. The urgency of the Communist Occasion’s transfer suggests a fear that pro-democracy sentiment in Hong Kong is so sturdy that the get together might lose management of the committee except it disqualifies democracy advocates from serving.
Lau Siu-kai, a senior adviser to the Chinese language management on Hong Kong coverage, stated China’s Communist Occasion-run nationwide legislature was anticipated to push ahead the electoral overhaul when it gathers in Beijing for its annual session beginning on March 5.
Mr. Lau, a former senior Hong Kong official, stated the Chinese language legislature, the Nationwide Folks’s Congress, would in all probability transfer to create a high-level group of presidency officers with the authorized authority to research each candidate for public workplace and decide whether or not every candidate is genuinely loyal to Beijing.
The plan would cowl candidates for almost 2,000 elected positions in Hong Kong, together with the committee that chooses the chief government, the legislature and the district councils, he stated.
The brand new election legislation now being drafted won’t be retroactive, Mr. Lau stated, and present district councilors will preserve their seats so long as they adhere to the legislation and swear loyalty to Hong Kong and China.
Beijing officers and state information media retailers have delivered a drumbeat of calls over the previous month for Hong Kong to be run solely by people who find themselves “patriots.” To Beijing, that time period is narrowly outlined as loyalty to mainland China and notably to the Chinese language Communist Occasion.
China’s high chief, Xi Jinping, raised the difficulty in late January with Mrs. Lam, telling her that having patriots govern Hong Kong was the one means to make sure town’s long-term stability. And on Tuesday, the Hong Kong authorities stated it will introduce a invoice requiring district councilors to take loyalty oaths and would ban candidates from standing for workplace for 5 years in the event that they had been deemed insincere or insufficiently patriotic.
“You can’t say, ‘I’m patriotic however I don’t respect the very fact that it’s the Chinese language Communist Occasion which leads the nation,’” Erick Tsang, Hong Kong’s secretary for constitutional and mainland affairs, stated at a information convention.
Michael Mo, a pro-democracy district councilor who has been outspoken in his criticisms of the federal government, stated that he deliberate to take the loyalty oath however that he had no management over whether or not that may be sufficient for the authorities.
“It’s less than me to outline whether or not I’m a patriot,” Mr. Mo stated. “The so-called passing mark is an unknown.”
The federal government’s strikes might additional chill free speech and political debate within the metropolis. Since Beijing imposed the nationwide safety legislation, town’s authorities have used it for a wide-ranging crackdown. They’ve arrested greater than 100 individuals, together with activists, politicians, an American lawyer and a pro-democracy writer.
“I can solely say individuals fear about that — for instance, whether or not criticism of Communist Occasion or the political system in China can be thought to be not patriotic, then they’ve this sort of self-censorship,” stated Ivan Choy, a senior lecturer in authorities and public administration on the Chinese language College of Hong Kong.
Earlier than final yr’s safety legislation, Beijing typically let the Hong Kong legislature draft and enact legal guidelines governing the territory. In an indication of how drastic a departure the brand new method is from earlier years, some Hong Kong politicians initially expressed skepticism that Beijing would as soon as once more bypass native officers to enact laws.
On Monday, hours after the speech by Mr. Xia, the Chinese language official in command of Hong Kong affairs, Holden Chow, a pro-establishment lawmaker, stated he nonetheless anticipated Hong Kong to formulate the electoral modifications by itself, as was custom.
However on Tuesday, as a battery of officers declared their expectation that Beijing would act straight, Mr. Chow stated that he had modified his thoughts and that he absolutely supported the central authorities’s intention to behave from on excessive.
He stated Beijing’s actions didn’t diminish the affect of Hong Kong’s leaders. “I don’t suppose you’ll discover this stuff fairly often,” he stated of the direct motion on electoral reform and the nationwide safety legislation.
“It’s simply in reference to these two main and essential issues,” Mr. Chow stated. “I nonetheless imagine that, going ahead, we nonetheless have a task to play.”
Keith Bradsher reported from Beijing, and Vivian Wang and Austin Ramzy from Hong Kong. Tiffany Could contributed reporting from Hong Kong.