In a single hand Manuel Reyes Estrada carried a kind and a pencil, within the different a bucket stuffed with small fish and a plastic Bucanero beer cup. “It’s like this,” he stated. “We, the well being brigade workers, are solely allowed to jot down with pencils.” His superiors, he defined, use pens. Within the afternoon, the superiors go to the homes the place the well being brigade workers have labored earlier within the day — “to test if we’ve got finished our work nicely.”
Manuel stopped for a second on the unpaved highway within the Cuban metropolis of Holguín to fill in the home numbers on his in any other case empty kind. He swept the sweat away from his face.
Day-after-day in cities throughout Cuba, an unlimited array of employees — from inspectors and fumigators to truck drivers and pipe layers — takes to the streets in a coordinated effort to offer clear water to their fellow residents.
Amongst different tasks, the well being employees conduct exhaustive inspections of rooftop water tanks, guaranteeing that the water is clear and freed from mosquito larvae, thereby serving to to forestall the transmission of tropical illnesses comparable to dengue, chikungunya and Zika.
The efforts are a part of an analog, labor-intensive resolution in a largely nondigital society.
A good portion of Cuba’s out there ingesting water is misplaced by its leaky and antiquated pipelines — greater than 50 %, by some estimates.
In recent times, infrastructure issues have been compounded by droughts and rising temperatures. For a lot of the inhabitants, operating water is offered solely sporadically — in some circumstances, for one or two hours a day, each few days. Whereas it flows, residents retailer the out there water in cisterns or tanks, which then function potential breeding environments for mosquitoes.
Manuel ignored the barking canine as he entered the home. A lady carrying curlers in her hair confirmed him the spiral staircase that results in the roof. After finding the constructing’s water tank, he used a small mirror to light up its shadowy inside.
Utilizing the plastic beer cup, Manuel scooped 5 little fish from his bucket into the water tank. “Usually we use Abate,” he stated, referring to a larvicide, often known as temefos, used to deal with water. However the chemical wasn’t out there, he defined, and so the fish, which eat the larvae, are employed as a pure — if sophisticated — various.
With a background in anthropology, I’ve lengthy been taken with how folks stay and handle their on a regular basis challenges.
Throughout earlier visits to Cuba, I seen the day by day struggles for recent water: folks hassling with water pumps, the streets soaked due to defective pipelines, water vans repeatedly plying the roads. Born and raised within the wet Netherlands, the place clear ingesting water is taken without any consideration, I hadn’t anticipated water to be a shortage on a tropical island.
In February 2019, Cubans voted to approve a brand new structure, which, amongst many different provisions, established the precise to scrub water. I made a decision to make this constitutional proper a place to begin for a venture on Cuba’s underreported water disaster.
I traveled to Cuba for six weeks in April and Could 2019, and for 4 extra weeks in January 2020. On the primary journey I discovered how totally different areas expertise totally different issues — and discover options. I additionally found what number of professions had been concerned in offering water to residents.
By shadowing totally different employees who had been concerned in guaranteeing water entry on varied components of the island, I started to see a cross-section of up to date Cuba.
Within the city of Trinidad, for instance, I met Alexis Alonso Mendoza, who described himself as “the preferred man on the town.”
Trinidad is split into a number of districts, every of which normally has operating water for 2 hours each 5 days. Because the “water-key man,” Alexis is liable for turning the underground sluices that change the path of the water throughout the city.
Utilizing an off-line map, I situated the small clinics, referred to as policlínicas, the place, at 8 a.m., the inspectors and fumigators of the well being brigade collect earlier than dispersing into the streets.
I climbed aboard a number of water vans, referred to as pipas, which provide water within the occasion of a damaged pipeline or inadequate strain — or when functioning plumbing merely doesn’t exist.
Most of the drivers had been sort sufficient to let me observe how they fill their vans and distribute the water. I witnessed firsthand the forms concerned — and the seemingly limitless quantities of time the drivers spent ready to fill their tanks.
I additionally hopped on the horse-drawn carriages that carry the water all through town, and noticed how Cubans — with an ingeniousness and thoroughness — tried to repair their water hoses and pumps with no matter supplies had been out there to them.
It’s troublesome to know the complete results of the pandemic on Cuba’s water disaster. For a lot of 2020, the nation largely managed the virus, however a dearth of vacationers led to one of many worst meals shortages in practically 25 years. Infections elevated dramatically after lockdowns had been lifted and the nation’s borders had been opened in November. Since then, further stresses to the general public well being system could have exacerbated inspection, fumigation and supply.
Whereas strolling again to the policlínica on the finish of one among his shifts, Manuel, who has labored for the well being brigade for 13 years, mirrored on his work. He was happy, he stated, to be “contributing to the well being of my compatriots.” However he additionally enjoys the interactions — visiting folks, having a chat. “Typically they invite me for espresso,” he stated.
A person on a bicycle greeted him as he rode previous. “Manuel, are you able to convey me some fish tomorrow? I’ll get you some cigars in return.”
Later, Manuel handed his supervisor. “You already know the inexperienced home on the nook, the place the older girl lives alone?” he stated. “I discovered mosquito larvae within the decrease tank on the patio.”
“OK,” his supervisor responded. “I’ll ship the fumigators to smoke them out. See you tomorrow, mi vida.”